Posted by: Seeker of the Sacred Knowledge | September 20, 2011

The Radiating Quranic Rays on the Intercession of the Best of Creation‏

The Radiating Quranic Rays on the Intercession
of the Best of Creation SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam

 a brother prayed to be blessed with the Intercession of Sayyiduna RasoolAllah SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam. He received an objection to this prayer and forwarded the objection to me. The one who objected to this prayer asked for evidence from the Quran and the Hadith that proves the Holy Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi wasalam) being an intercessor (on the Day of Judgement).

Purity is to Allah! Listening to such questions really shocks and surprises – for to be called a Muslim and claiming to be a follower of the Sunnah whilst being afflicted by the disease of doubting such clear matters of faith – this is yet another sign that Doomsday is nigh!

Each & every living person of the Ahl as-Sunnah, even the women and children – to the extent that unlettered villagers know about the basic beliefs – the vision of Allah, the intercession of the Prophet – these are upon the tongue of every child. (Praise be to Allah, and peace & blessings be upon the Prophet). For now, I am presenting few verses of the Holy Qur’an supporting the fact that Beloved Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him is the Intercessor of the Sinners by the grace of Allah Almighty.

Verse # 1


عسى أن يبعثك ربك مقاما محمودا
It is likely your Lord will set you on a place where everyone will praise you. [Surah Bani Israel 17:79]

It is reported in Hadith that the Holy Prophet, the Intercessor of the sinners, was asked,


عسى أن يبعثك ربك مقاما محمودا سئل عنها قال هى الشفاعة
“What is the Maqam Mahmoud (Place of Praise)?” He said, “That is Intercession.” [Tirmidhi, Abwab Tafsir Surah Bani Israel, Amin Co. Dehli, Vol. 2, Page 142]

Verse # 2


ولسوف يعطيك ربك فترضى
And indeed your Lord will soon give you so much that you will be pleased. [Surah Al Duha 93:5]

Daylimi has reported from Hadrat Mawla Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, that when this verse was revealed, the Intercessor of the sinners said,


إذاً لا أرضى وواحد من أمتي في النار
“When Allah, the Supreme, has promised that he will make me pleased, I shall not be pleased even if just one of my followers remains in Hell.” [Tafseer al Kabeer, Vol. 31, Page 213] (O Allah – Blessings & peace and abundance be upon him).

Tabarani in Ma’jam Awsat and Bazzaaz in Musnad narrate from Hadrat Maula Ali that the Intercessor of the sinners says,


أشفع لأمتي حتى يناديني ربي أرضيت يا محمد؟ فأقول : نعم يا رب رضيت
“I shall keep on interceding for my Ummah until my Lord will proclaim, “O Muhammad! Are you now satisfied?” I shall say, “O my Lord! Yes I am satisfied.” [Allama Suyuti in ad-Dur ul-Manthoor Fi Tafseer al-Mathoor, Vol. 6, Page 361]

Verse # 3


واستغفر لذنبك وللمؤمنين والمؤمنات
And seek the forgiveness of the sins of your close ones and for the common believing men and women.” [Surah Muhammad 47:19]

In this verse, Allah the Supreme, commands his Noble Prophet to seek forgiveness of the sins of the Muslim men and Muslim women from Him – so what else is intercession defined as?

Verse # 4


ولو أنهم إذ ظلموا أنفسهم جاءوك فاستغفروا الله واستغفر لهم الرسول لوجدوا الله توابا رحيما
And if they, when they have wronged their own souls, come humbly to you (O dear Prophet Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him) and seek forgiveness from Allah, and the Noble Messenger intercedes for them, they will certainly find Allah as the Most Acceptor Of Repentance, the Most Merciful. [Surah Nisa’a 4:64]

In this verse, Allah the Supreme, commands the Muslims that having sinned, they should humbly come to the august court of the Noble Prophet and plead him to intercede – so when the beloved intercedes, He will surely forgive them!!

Verse # 5


وإذا قيل لهم تعالوا يستغفر لكم رسول الله لووا رءوسهم
And when it is said to them, “Come! Allah’s Noble Messenger may seek forgiveness for you” – they turn their heads away. [Surah Munafiqoon 63:5]

This verse highlights the wretched state of the hypocrites – that they do not seek the intercession of the Holy Prophet – the Intercessor of the sinners. So if they do not seek it now, they will not get it in the hereafter, and those who do not get it then – will never get relief. May Allah benefit us with his intercession in this world and in the hereafter. (Aameen)
Posted by: Seeker of the Sacred Knowledge | September 16, 2011

Respecting the things and places associated with the Beloved Prophet‏

Another element of the reverence and esteem for Beloved Prophet Muhammad Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him is found in all things and places connected to him in Makkah al-Mukarrama, Madinah al-Munawwarah and elsewhere.

Hadrat Saffiyah bint Najda Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anha tells us that Abu Madhura Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anho had a long lock of hair on his forehead that touched the ground when he sat down. When he was asked why he did not cut it he replied,

لم أكن بالذي أحلفها ، و قد مسها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بيده
“I will not cut off something that the hand of the Messenger of Allah Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him touched.” [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 62]

The Sword of Islam, Hadrat Sayyiduna Khalid Ibn Waleed Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anho had some strands of the Prophet’s of hair that he placed inside his cap. During one of the battles the cap fell off whereupon he fought zealously to retrieve it. He told his companions that,

لم أفعلها بسبب القلنسوة ، بل لما تضمنه من شعره صلى الله عليه و سلم لئلا أسلب بركتها و تقع في أيدي المشركين
I didn’t fight for the sake of the cap, rather I fought to retrieve the strands of the Prophet’s hair that were tucked within it so that I would not be deprived of their blessing, and also to avoid them falling into the hands of the unbelievers. [Majma’ az-Zawaid, Vol. 9, Page 349 – Mustadrik, Vol. 3, Page 239]

Ibn al-Sakan narrated through Safwan ibn Hubayra from the latter’s father: Thabit al-Bunani said: Anas ibn Malik said to me (on his death-bed):

هذه شعرة من شعر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فضعها تحت لساني فوضعتها تحت لسانه فدفن وهي تحت لسانه
“This is one of the hairs of Allah’s Messenger, Allah’s blessings and peace upon him. I want you to place it under my tongue.” Thabit continued: I placed it under his tongue, and he was buried with it under his tongue.” [al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-Sahaba (Calcutta – 1853), Vol. 1, Page 72]

Imam al-Bayhaqi records in his Dalail al-Nabuwwah and Imam Qadi Iyad al-Maliki states in his Ash-Shifa:

رئي ابن عمر واضعاً يده على مقعد النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من المنبر ، ثم وضعها على وجهه
Hadrat Sayyiduna Ibn Umar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anho was seen placing his hand on the seat of the Beloved Prophet’s pulpit and then wipe it over his face. [Dalail an-Nabuwwah lil Bayhaqi, Vol. 6, Page 249]

Abu Abd ar-RaHman Salma Alaihir raHma narrated from Ahmad Ibn Fadlwiya Zahid Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anho that he was a famous archer in Battles. He says:

ما مسست القوس بيدي إلا على طهارة منذ بلغني أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أخذ القوس بيده
I never touched my bow without Ablution from the time Beloved Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him) took it in his Blessed Hands. [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 63]

It was on account of the esteem Imam Malik Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anho had for the Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him that we would not ride a mount in Madinah al-Munawwarah. He would say,

أستحي من الله أن أطأ تربة فيها رسول الله بحافر دابة
“I am too shy before Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala to trample with the hoof of an animal upon the earth in which the Messenger of Allah Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him is buried.” [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 63]

Someone in Madinah al-Munawwarah said, “The soil of Madinah al-Munawwarah is bad.” (May Allah Forbid) This outrageous statement caused Imam Malik to pronounce the judgement against him that he should be beaten and jailed. The man had connections to the hierarchy of Madinah al-Munawwarah but Imam Malik did not retract his judgement and said,

تربة دفن فيها النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يزعم أنها غير طيبة
“He claims the soil in which the Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him is buried is not good!” [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 63]

Of Madinah al-Munawwarah, the Beloved Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him said,

من أحدث فيها حدثاً أو آوى محدثاً فعليه لعنة الله و الملائكة و الناس أجمعين ، لا يقبل الله منه صرفاً و لا عدلاً
“The curse of Allah, the angels and all mankind falls upon whosoever innovates something (against the spirit of Islam) in it or shelters an innovator (of something against the spirit of Islam) therein.” [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 63]

Imam Qadi Iyad al-Maliki Alaihir raHmah records in Ash-Shifa bi Ta’rifi Huqooqil Mustafa:

أن جهجاها الغفاري أخذ قضيب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من يد عثمان رضي الله عنه ، و تناول ليكسره على ركبته ، فصاح به الناس ، فأخذته الأكله في ركبته فقطعها ، و مات قبل الحول
Jihjah al-Ghifari snatched hold of the Beloved Prophet’s staff from Sayyiduna Uthman’s hand and proceeded to try and break it across his knee. Upon seeing this, the people shouted at him. Thereafter he was stricken by an itching disease in his knee and despite its amputation he died within the year. [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 63]

The Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him said,

من حلف على منبري كاذباً فليتبوأ مقعده من النار
“Whosoever swears to a lie on my pulpit will have a seat in the Fire.” [Ash-Shifa, Vol 2, Page 63]

Abu Fadl al-Jowhari Alaihir raHma was blessed to visit the City of Madinah al-Munawwarah and as he approached he recited:

رفع الحجاب لنا فلاح لناظر ـــ قمر تقطع دونه الأوهام
و إذا المطي بنا بلغن محمداً ـــ فظهورهن على الرجال حرام
قربننا من يخر من وطيء الثرى ـــ و لها علينا حرمة و ذمام
“The veil has been lifted from us and a moon shines; out to those who look on, banishing all illusions.
As our mounts reach Muhammad; it is forbidden for us to be found in our saddles.
We are drawing near to the best man to have ever walked upon the earth; so it is with respect and honor that we hold this ground.” [Ash-Shifa, Vol 2, Page 64]

When a pious Shaykh went on pilgrimage, he went on foot. When asked why he had done so, he replied,

العبد الآبق لا يأتي إلى بيت مولاه راكباً ! لو قدرت أن أمشي على رأسي ما مشيت على قدمي
“What, an offending worshiper going to the home of his master riding! Had I been able to walk upon my head, I would not have walked upon my feet!” [Ash-Shifa, Vol 2, Page 64]

Reverence and respect for the places in which the Revelation were received and which the angels Jibra’il and Mika’il visited, as well as places where the angels descended, also places that heard the sounds of worship and exaltation, and the blessed soil that surrounds the body of the Master of all mankind Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him and places from which the religion of Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala and the prophetic quotations of the Messenger of Allah Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him were spread are necessities.

One must also revere and respect the places where verses of the Holy Qur’an were studied, the mosques in which the prayer was offered, places where virtues and good deeds were witnessed, places that saw proofs and miracles, places associated with the rites of the religion and the stations of the pilgrimage and the way marks of the Master of all the messengers of Allah, praise and peace be upon them. The places where the Seal of the Prophets Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him lived and from which the prophecy gushed and where its waves overflowed. The places that witnessed the message, and the first earth that the skin of the Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him touched after his death – its fragrance should be inhaled, its residence and walls kissed.

يا دار خير المرسلين و من به ـــ هدي الأنام و خص بالآيات
عندي لأجلك لوعة و صبابة ـــ و تشوق متوقد الجمرات
و علي عهد إن ملأت محاجري ـــ من تكلم الجدران و العرصات
لاعفرن مصون شيبي بينها ـــ من كثرة التقبيل و الرشفات
لولا العوادي ، و الأعادي زرتها ـــ أبدا و لو سحباً على الوزجنات
لكن سأهدي من حفيل تحيتي ـــ لقطين تلك الدار و الحجرات
أزكى من المسك المفتق نفحةً ـــ تغشاه بالآصال و البكرات
و تخصه بزواكي الصلوات ـــ و نوامي التلسيم و البركات

“O abode of the best of all Messengers; the one by whom people are guided
and he who was chosen to receive the verses. For you I have intense, passionate love,
and a yearning which kindles the embers of my heart. I have a vow – if I fill my eyes with those walls
and the places where you walked, then my turbaned Gray head will be covered with dust from so much kissing.
Had it not been for obstacles and enemies, I would always visit them, even if I were to be dragged upon my feet.
But I will be guided in my eagerness to greet the inhabitants of those houses and rooms.
By a scent purer than the most splendid musk which covers him each morning and evening.
Pure and ever increasing blessings are bestowed upon him through the prayers for Peace and Blessings upon Him.”

Posted by: Seeker of the Sacred Knowledge | September 15, 2011

The Great Sidi Shaykh Abdul Rahman Shaghouri

Sheikh Abd al-Rahman al-Shaghouri left this world on Tuesday 8 June 2004 in Damascus after a lifetime of serving Islam and Muslims. Thousands came to his funeral on Wednesday at the mosque of Sheikh Muhyiddin Ibn al- Arabi in the Salihiyya quarter. Among the people who prayed over him and buried him were those who knew him as a father, friend, religious scholar, teacher, mystical poet and vocalist, and Sufi sheikh.

Many who knew him regarded him as a wali or friend of Allah, and surely his long decades of service to others had much to do with it. His wife bore him five sons and five daughters, and he was preceded to the afterlife by her and a son. Originally a weaver by trade, he had been instrumental in unionizing workers in the present c entury in Damascus, and served on the committee that led the Syrian Textile Workers Union in a successful forty-day strike for workmen s compensation. He had represented Syria in the United Arab Workers Union, and led an active public life. Earlier this year in the month of Rabi I, he had received recognition at the Burda [Prophetic Mantle] annual poetry awards given by the United Arab Emirates for outstanding service to the Umma of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). With the apples and everything else he did, he was always teaching students the inner sunnas of the character and states of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), to whom he referred everything. I am just a parrot, he told us.





Videos of the Shaykh :

Audio Of the Shaykh :

Passing Of The Shaykh :

Posted by: Seeker of the Sacred Knowledge | September 15, 2011

The awliya know the date of the day of judgement

Recently, i started reading the al ibriz book. Written by shaykh ibn al mubarak al latimi. Essentially the book is a collection of notes he made whilst being with his shaykh. Whom was Shaykh Abdul Azeez Ad Dabbagh. The book is a collection of 4 months teachings of the great saint of Allah. Where he (shaykh ibn al mubarak) asked different questions to his shaykh. The contents of the book are the answers to the questions, which became “pure gold from the sayings of syyiduna Abdul Azeez Dabbagh”.
InshaAllah, i will make notes as I go along reading the book. Especially noting down any secrets and special wisdom which the great saint, ghous of his time syyidina Abdul azeez dabbagh mentions….

1) The awliyah know the actual date when the day of judgement will occur. Shaykh Ibn al Mubarak al latimi asked this to his shaykh: – (shaykh Abdul azeez ad dabbagh)

And shaykh Abdul azeez dabbagh replied:

2) Following from this, in the chapter of “the descriptions of barzakh” in al ibriz. we also learn how the state of the infidels will be:

مناقب سید الشہداء
حضرت سیدنا حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ

بِسْمِ اللہ ِالرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِیْمِ

وَلَا تَقُوْلُوْا لِمَنْ یُّقْتَلُ فِیْ سَبِیْلِ اللّٰہِ اَمْوَاتٌ بَلْ اَحْیَآءٌ وَلٰکِنْ لَّا تَشْعُرُوْنَ (بقرہ:١٥٤)
جو اللہ کی راہ میں مارے جائیں ان کو مردہ نہ کہو، وہ تو زندہ ہیں ، مگر تم کو خبر نہیں

یہ سید الشہداء ، اللہ تعالیٰ کی بارگاہ میں سفارش کرنے والوں کے سردار، اللہ تعالیٰ اور اس کے رسول مکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے شیر، رسول اللہ صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے مبارک چچاحضرت حمزہ رضی اللہ تعالی عنہ کے مناقب ہیں، جن کے موتیوں کو پرونے اور جن کی چمک دمک ظاہر کرنے کا فریضہ خاندان نبوت اور علمی خانوادے کے گوہرشب تاب مشہور”مولد نبوی” (مولود برزنجی) اور شہداء بدر کے اسماء گرامی پر مشتمل کتاب ” جالیۃ الکدر فی نظم اسماء شھداء بدر” اور دیگر مفید اور جلیل کتب کے مصنف حضرت علامہ سید جعفر بن حسن برزنجی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ نے سر انجام دیا ہے۔

یہ حضرت سید الشہداء رضی اللہ تعالی عنہ کے عظیم مناقب ہیں جنہوں نے رسول اللہ صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کا دفاع کرتے ہوئے جان کی بازی لگادی ، غزوہ احد میں جن کی شہادت پر ہمارے آقا ومولا اور حبیب مکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم غمگین ہوئے، اس غزوہ کے اسلامی تاریخ پر گہرے اثرات مرتب ہوئے، وہ تاریخ جس کی بنیاد ان جانبازوں نے رکھی۔ یہ مناقب حضور قلب کے ساتھ متوجہ ہونے والوں کے لیے کئی اسباق اور نصیحتیں اپنے دامن میں چھپائے ہوئے ہیں۔

 یہ دلکش اور روح پرور باغ ہے جس کی باد صبا حضرت سید الشہداء حمزہ رضی اللہ تعالی عنہ کے احوال کی خوشبو سے معطر ہے اور اس کی جودوسخا کی بارش، حضرت سید الشہداء کے ہمراہ جام شہادت نوش کرنے والے خوش بختوں کے موتیوں جیسے ناموں سے سیراب ہوتی ہے، ان حضرات نے دین مصطفی صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کی نصرت و حمایت میں اپنی جانوں کی بازی لگادی اور اسلام کے پھیلاؤ کا راستہ ہموار کردیا۔

میرے دل میں اس باغ کے گھنے درختوں میں داخل ہونے، اس کے حوضوں کے چشموں سے سیراب ہونے، نور کے برجوں سے موتیوں کی بارش طلب کرنے اور ان موتیوں کو مندرجہ ذیل سطور کی لڑی میں پرونے کا خیال پیدا ہوا، تاکہ انہیں حضرت سید الشہداء کے مزار مقدس کے پاس مقرر عمل (ایصال ثواب) کے بعد پڑھا جائے، خصوصاً آپ کی خصوصی زیارت (٢) کی رات جس کی روشن صبح ابر آلود نہیں ہوتی بلکہ اجلی اجلی ہوتی ہے، مقصد یہ ہے کہ اللہ تعالیٰ کے پاکیزہ اور باکمال بندوں کے ذکر سے اللہ تعالیٰ کی رحمتوں کی موسلادھار بارشیں حاصل کی جائیں۔

میں کہتا ہوں کہ وہ سیدنا حمزہ ابن عبد المطلب بن ہاشم، نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے چچا اور رضاعی بھائی ہیں، ابو لہب کی آزاد کردہ کنیز ثوبیہ نے ان دونوں ہستیوں اور حضرت ابو سلمہ ابن عبد الاسد مخزومی (حضرت ام المومنین ام سلمہ رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہا کے پہلے شوہر) کو دودھ پلایا تھا۔

حضرت حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ کی عمر نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم سے دو سال اور ایک قول کے مطابق چار سال زیادہ تھی (٣)، ان دونوں ہستیوں کو مختلف اوقات میں (٤) دودھ پلایاگیا، حضرت سیدالشھداء اور حضرت صفیہ (نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کی پھوپھی) کی والدہ، ھالہ بنت اھیب بن عبد مناف بن زہرہ، نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کی والدہ ماجدہ حضرت آمنہ رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہاکی چچا زاد بہن تھیں۔

آپ کی اولاد میں سے پانچ بیٹے تھے، چار کے نام یہ ہیں:

١۔ یعلی (٥) ٢۔عمارۃ (٦) ٣۔عمرو   اور  ٤۔ عامر

دو بیٹیاں تھیں:

١۔ ام الفضل (٧) ٢۔امامہ (٨) اس وقت حضرت سید الشھداء کی اولاد میں سے کوئی نہیں ہے (٩)

اللھم ادم دیم الرضوان علیہ
وامد نا بالا سرار التی اودعتھا لدیہ

اے اللہ! ان پر رحمت و رضوان کی موسلادھار بارش ہمیشہ برسا اور جو اسرار تو نے ان کے پاس امانت رکھے ہیں، ان کے ساتھ ہماری امداد فرما۔ حضرت سید الشہداء بہادر، سخی، نرم خوش اخلاق، قریش کے دلاور جوان اور غیرت مندی میں انتہائی بلند مقام کے مالک تھے۔

بعثت کے دوسرے سال (١٠) اور ایک قول کے مطابق چھٹے سال (١١) مشرف باسلام ہوئے، اسلام لانے کے دن انہوں نے سنا کہ ابو جہل،نبی صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کی شان میں نازیبا کلمات کہہ رہا ہے تو آپ نے حرم مکہ شریف میں اس کے سر پر اس زور سے کمان ماری کہ اس کا سر کھل گیا۔ (١٢)

حضرت حمزہ نے نبی صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم سے گزارش کی ۔۔۔۔۔۔ یارسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم! اپنے دین کا کھل کر پرچار کیجئے! اللہ تعالیٰ کی قسم ! مجھے دنیا بھر کی دولت بھی دے دی جائے تو میں اپنی قوم کے دین پر رہنا پسند نہیں کروں گا، ان کے اسلام لانے سے رسول اللہ صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کو تقویت حاصل ہوئی اور مشرکین آپ کی ایذا رسانی سے کسی حد تک رک گئے، بعد ازاں ہجرت کرکے مدینہ منورہ چلے گئے۔

رسول اللہ صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے جو پہلا جھنڈا تیار کیا وہ سید الشہداء ہی کے لیے تھا (١٣)، جب ٢ھ / ٦٢٣ء میں حضور سید عالم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے انہیں قوم جھینہ کے علاقے میں سیف البحر کی طرف (ایک دستے کے ہمراہ) بھیجا، جیسے کہ مدائنی نے کہا ہے (١٤)۔

ابن ہشام نے سیدنا حمزہ رضی اللہ تعالی عنہ کے یہ اشعار نقل کیے ہیں (١٥)۔

فما برحوا حتی انتدبت بغارۃ
لھم حیث حلوا ابتغی راحتہ الفضل
بامر رسول اللہ اول خافق
علیہ لو لم یکن لاح من قبلی

وہ اسلام دشمنی سے باز نہیں آئے یہاں تک کہ میں ان کے ہر ٹھکانے پر حملے کے لیے آگے بڑھا، فضیلت کی راحت حاصل کرنا میرا مقصود تھا۔
رسول اللہ صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے حکم پر میں پہلا تلوار چلانے والا تھاجس کے سر پر جھنڈا تھا، یہ جھنڈا مجھ سے پہلے ظاہر نہ ہوا تھا۔

حضرت سید الشہداء جنگ بدر میں اس حال میں شامل ہوئے کہ انہوں نے شتر مرغ (١٦) کا پر اپنے اوپر بطور نشان لگایا ہوا تھا ، انہوں نے اس جنگ میں زبردست جانبازی کا مظاہرہ کیا، رسول اللہ صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے آگے دو تلواروں (١٧) کے ساتھ لڑتے رہے،کفارکے سورماؤںکو بکھیر دیا اور مشرکین کو کاری زخم لگائے (١٨) ۔

حضرت سید الشہداء رضی اللہ تعالی عنہ جنگ احد کے دن خاکستری اونٹ اور پھاڑنے والے شیر دکھائے دیتے تھے، انہوں نے اپنی تلوار سے مشرکین کو بری طرح خوف زدہ کردیا، کوئی ان کے سامنے ٹھہرتا ہی نہ تھا۔

غزوہ احد میں آپ نے اکتیس مشرکوں کو جہنم رسید کیا، جیسا کہ امام نووی رحمۃا للہ تعالیٰ علیہ نے بیان فرمایا (١٩)، پھر آپ کا پاؤں پھسلا تو آپ تیر اندازوں کی پہاڑی کے پاس واقع وادی میں پشت کے بل گرگئے، زرہ آپ کے پیٹ سے کھل گئی، جبیر بن مطعم کے غلام وحشی بن حرب نے کچھ فاصلے سے خنجر پھینکااور اللہ تعالیٰ نے اس کے ہاتھوں آپ کو مرتبہ شہادت سے سرفراز فرمایا، یہ واقعہ ہفتے کے دن نصف شوال کو ٣ھ (٢٠) یا ٤ھ (٢١) (٦٢٤ء یا ٦٢٥ء) کو پیش آیا، اس وقت آپ کی عمر ٥٧ سال تھی۔ ایک قول کے مطابق آپ کی عمر شریف ٥٩ سال(٢٢) اور ایک دوسرے قول کے مطابق ٥٤ سال تھی۔(٢٣)

پھر مشرکین نے آپ کے اعضاء کاٹے اور پیٹ چاک کیا ، ان کی ایک عورت نے آپ کا جگر نکال کر منہ میں ڈالا اور اسے چبایا، لیکن اسے اپنے حلق سے نیچے نہ اتار سکی، ناچا ر صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم سے تھوک دیا۔ (٢٤)

جب رسول اللہ صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کو یہ اطلاع ملی تو آپ نے فرمایا:

اگر یہ جگر اس کے پیٹ میں چلا جاتا تو وہ عورت آگ میں داخل نہ ہوتی، (٢٥) کیونکہ اللہ تعالیٰ کی بارگاہ میں حمزہ کی اتنی عزت ہے کہ ان کے جسم کے کسی حصے کو آگ میں داخل نہیں فرمائے گا۔ (٢٦)

اللھم ادم دیم الرضوان علیہ
وامد نا بالا سرار التی اودعتھا لدیہ

جب رسول اللہ صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم تشریف لائے اور آپ کے مثلہ کیے ہوئے جسم کو دیکھا، تو یہ منظر آپ کے دل اقدس کے لیے اس قدر تکلیف دہ تھا کہ اس سے زیادہ تکلیف دہ منظر آپ کی نظر سے کبھی نہیں گزراتھا، اسے دیکھ کر آپ کو جلال آگیا، آپ نے فرمایا:

”تمھارے جیسے شخص کے ساتھ ہمیں کبھی تکلیف نہ دی جائیگی، ہم کسی ایسی جگہ کھڑے نہیں ہوئے جو ہمیں اس سے زیادہ غضب دلانے والی ہو۔”

اس پر اللہ تعالیٰ نے یہ آیت نازل فرمائی:

وان عاقبتم فعاقبوا بمثل ماعوقبتم بہ ولئن صبرتم لھو خیر للصابرین وما صبرک الا باللہ ولا تحزن علیھم ولا تک فی ضیق مما یمکرون ان اللہ مع الذین اتقوا والذین ھم محسنون۔ (٢٧)
ترجمہ: ”اور اگر تم سزا دو تو اتنی ہی دو جتنی تمہیں تکلیف دی گیئ اور اگر صبر کرو تو وہ صبر کرنے والوں کے لیے بہتر ہے، آپ صبر کیجئے! اور آپ کا صبر اللہ ہی کے بھروسے پر ہے، آپ ان کے بارے میں غمگین اور تنگ دل نہ ہوں ان کے فریبوں کے سبب، بے شک اللہ ان لوگوں کے ساتھ ہے جو متقی ہیں اور ان کے ساتھ جو نیکوکار ہیں۔”

نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے عرض کیا : ”اے رب ! بلکہ ہم صبر کریں گے۔”

نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے فرمایا:

” اے چچا! آپ پر اللہ تعالیٰ کی رحمت ہو، کیونکہ آپ جب تک عمل کرتے رہے، بہت نیکی کرنے والے اور بہت صلہ رحمی کرنے والے تھے۔”(٢٨)

پھر ان کے جسد مبارک کو قبلہ کی جانب رکھا اور ان کے جنازے کے سامنے کھڑے ہوئے اور اس شدت سے روئے کہ قریب تھا کہ آپ پر غشی طاری ہوجاتی۔

نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم فرمارہے تھے:

” اے اللہ تعالیٰ کے رسول کے چچا! ـــــــــــ اللہ تعالی اور اس کے رسول صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے شیر!ـــــــــــ اے حمزہ! اے نیک کام کرنے والے!ـــــــــــــ اے حمزہ! مصیبتوں کے دور کرنے والے ـــــــــــــ اے حمزہ! ــــــــــــ رسول اللہ صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کا دفاع کرنے والے!” (٢٩)

یہ بھی فرمایا: ہمارے پاس جبرائیل امین علیہ السلام تشریف لائے اور ہمیں بتایا کہ حضرت حمزہ کے بارے میں ساتوں آسمانوں میں لکھا ہوا ہے:

” حمزہ ابن عبد المطلب، اللہ تعالیٰ اور اس کے رسول صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے شیر ہیں ۔” (٣٠)

حاکم نیشاپوری، مستدرک میں حضرت جابر رضی اللہ عنہ سے مرفوعا (یعنی رسول اللہ صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کا فرمان) روایت کرتے ہیں کہ قیامت کے دن اللہ تعالیٰ کی بارگاہ میں حضرت حمزہ ابن عبد المطلب شفاعت کرنے والوں کے سردار ہیں۔ (٣١)

اللہ تعالیٰ نے فرمایا:

افمن وعدناہ وعدا حسنا فھو لاقیہ (٣٢)۔
(کیا جس شخص سے ہم نے اچھا وعدہ کیا ہے وہ اس سے ملاقات کرنے والا ہے۔)

سدی کہتے ہیں کہ یہ آیت حضرت حمزہ کے بارے میں نازل ہوئی۔(٣٣)

اللہ تعالیٰ نے فرمایا:

یاایتھا النفس المطمئنہ ارجعی الی ربک راضیۃ مرضیۃ۔ (٣٤)
ترجمہ: ” اے اطمینان والی جان! تو اپنے رب کی طرف اس حال میں لوٹ جا کہ تو اس سے راضی وہ تجھ سے راضی۔”

سلفی کہتے ہیں کہ اس سے مراد حضرت حمزہ ہیں۔ (٣٥)

نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے انہیں ایسی چادر کا کفن پہنایا کہ جب اسے آپ کے سر پر پھیلاتے تو پاؤں ننگے ہوجاتے اور پاؤں پر پھیلاتے تو سر ننگا ہوجاتا، چنانچہ وہ چادر آپ کے سر پر پھیلادی گئی اور پاؤں پر اذخر (خوشبودار گھاس) ڈال دی گئی۔ (٣٦)

نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے آپ کی نماز جنازہ نہیں پڑھی، یہی زیادہ صحیح ہے (٣٧)، یا ان کی نماز جنازہ کا نہ پڑھنا ان کی خصوصیت ہے (٣٨)۔ انہیں ایک ٹیلے پر دفن کیا، جہاں اس وقت ان کی قبر انور مشہور ہے (٣٩) اور اس پر عظیم گنبد ہے، یہ گنبد خلیفہ الناصر لدین اللہ احمد بن المستضئی العباسی کی والدہ نے ٥٩٠ ھ میں تعمیر کروایا۔

کہا جاتا ہے کہ قبر میں ان کے ساتھ حضرت عبد اللہ بن جحش (٤٠) اور حضرت مصعب بن عمیر(٤١)، بعض علماء نے کہا کہ حضرت شماس بن عثمان ہیں، آپ کے مزار شریف کے سرہانے سید حسن بن محمد بن ابی نمی کے بیٹے عقیل کی قبر ہے، مسجد کے صحن میں بعض سادات امراء کی قبریں ہیں۔

اللھم ادم دیم الرضوان علیہ
وامدنا بالا سرار التی اود عتھا لدیہ

جب نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم غزوہ احد کے بعد مدینہ منورہ واپس تشریف لائے تو انصار کی عورتوں کو اپنے شہیدوں پر روتے ہوئے سنا، آپ نے فرمایا:

”لیکن حمزہ پر کوئی رونے والیاں نہیں ہیں (٤٢)۔”

اور آپ پر گریہ طاری ہوگیا، انصار نے اپنی عورتوں کو حکم دیا کہ اپنے شہیدوں سے پہلے حضرت حمزہ پر روئیں، ایک مدت تک انصار کی خواتین کا معمول یہ رہا کہ وہ جب بھی کسی میت والے گھر جاتیں تو پہلے حضرت حمزہ پر روتیں (٤٣)۔

حضرت کعب بن مالک انصاری اپنے قصیدے میں اظہار غم کرتے ہوئے کہتے ہیں۔

ولقد ہددت لفقد حمزہ ھدۃ
ظلت بنات الجوف منھا ترعد
ولو انہ فجعت حراء بمثلہ

لرایت راسی صخرھا یتھدد
قرم تمکن من ذؤابہ ھاشم
حیث النبوۃ والندا والسؤدد
والعاقر الکوم الجلاد اذا غدت

ریح یکاد الماء منھا یجمد
والتارک القرن الکمی مجندلا
یوم الکریھۃ والقنا یتقصد
وتراہ یرفل فی الحدید کانہ

ذو لبدۃ شثن البراثن اربد
عم النبی محمد و صفیہ
ورد الحمام فطاب ذاک المورد
وافی المنیۃ معلما فی اسرۃ

نصروا النبی ومنھم المستشھد
اللھم ادم دیم الرضوان علیہ
وامد نا بالا سرار التی اود عتھا لدیہ (٤٤)

حضرت حمزہ کے رحلت فرما جانے سے مجھ پر ایسا صدمہ ہوا ہے کہ میرا دل اور جگر لرز اٹھے ہیں۔
ایسا صدمہ اگر جبل حرا کو پہنچایا جاتا تو دیکھتا کہ اس کی چٹانوں کے دونوں کنارے تھرا اٹھتے۔
وہ ہاشمی خاندان کے معزز سردار تھے جہاں نبوت، سخاوت اور سرداری ہے۔
وہ طاقتور جانوروں کے گلے کو ذبح کرنے والے تھے جب ٹھنڈی ہوا سے پانی جمنے کے قریب ہوتا تھا (یعنی سخت سردی کے موسم میں)
جنگ کے دن جب نیزے ٹوٹ رہے ہوں وہ بہادر مد مقابل کو کشتہ تیغ بنادیتے تھے۔
تو انہیں مسلح ہوکر فخر سے چلتا ہوا دیکھتا (تو کہتا کہ) وہ خاکستری رنگ والا، مضبوط پنجوں والا، ایال دار(شیر) ہے۔
وہ نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے چچا اور برگزیدہ اصحاب میں سے ہیں، انہوں نے موت کے منہ میں چھلانگ لگائی تو وہ جگہ خوشگوار ہوگئی۔
انہوں نے اس حال میں موت سے ملاقات کی کہ ان پر(شتر مرغ کے پر کا) نشان لگا ہوا تھا، وہ مجاہدین کی ایسی جماعت میں تھے جس نے نبی اکرم اکی امداد کی اور ان میں سے کچھ لوگ مرتبہ شہادت پر فائز ہوگئے۔

اللھم ادم الدیم الرضوان علیہ
وایدنا بالاسرار التی اودعتھا لدیہ


ان کے علاوہ جن حضرات کے بارے میں کہا گیا ہے کہ اس دن شہادت سے نوازے گئے اور اللہ تعالیٰ کی طرف سے ان کے اعمال صالحہ کی اچھی خبر اور زیادہ اجر دیا گیا، ان کے ناموں کی فہرست حسب ذیل ہے۔ (٤٥)

اے اللہ! اس روشن انوار والی بارگاہ کے صاحب (حضرت حمزہ) کے طفیل ہماری دعا ہے کہ ہم سب کو آتش جہنم کے شعلوں سے رہائی عطا فرما، کدورتیں دور فرما، ہلاکتوں سے محفوظ فرما، بکثرت بارشیں عطا فرما، اشیاء ضرورت سستی فرما، اطراف و جوانب کو امن عطا فرما، قریب و بعید اور پڑوسیوں پر رحم فرما، ارباب حکومت اور رعایا کی اصلاح فرما، اسلامی لشکروں اپنی نصرت سے تقویت عطا فرما، اپنے دشمن کافروں میں اپنے قہر کا حکم نافذ فرما اور انہیں مسلمانوں کے لیے مال غنیمت بنا۔

اے اللہ تعالی اور اس کے رسول صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے شیر! ہم آپ کی بارگاہ میں حاضر ہوئے ہیں، ہم امید رکھتے ہیں کہ ہم میں سے ہر شخص کی درخواست قبول کی جائیگی، ہم نے اپنی امیدوں کی کجاوے آپ کی بارگاہ میں اتارے ہیں، آپ کے دربار کرم میں حاضر ہیں، آپ کی شان یہ نہیں ہے کہ آپ ہمیں نظر انداز کر دیں، ہم نے آپ کی جود و سخا کے بھر پور برسنے والے بادلوں سے بارش طلب کی ہے۔

یارب قد لذنا بعم نبینا
رب المظاھر قدست اسرارہ
فا قل عثار من استجار بعمہ
او زارہ لتکفرن اوزارہ
والطف بنا فی المعضلات فاننا
بجوار من لا شک یکرم جارہ
واختم لنا باالصالحات اذ دنا
منا الحمام وانشب اظفارہ
ثم الصلاۃ علی سلالۃ ھاشم
من طاب محتدہ و طاب نجارہ
والآل والصحب الکرام اولی التقی
صید الانام ومن ھم انصارہ
ما انشدت طرباً مطوقۃ الشظی
او ناح بالالحان فیہ ھزارہ

اے رب کائنات! ہم نے مظہر نعمت و قدرت اپنے نبی صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے چچا کی پناہ لی ہے، انکے اسرار کو تقدس عطا کیا جائے۔
اس شخص کی لغزشوں کو معاف فرما جس نے نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے محترم چچا کی پناہ لی ہے یا گناہوں کی مغفرت کے لیے انکی زیارت کی ہے۔
مشکلات میں ہم پر مہربانی فرما، کیونکہ ہم اس ہستی کے جوار میں ہیں جو بلا شک و شبہ اپنے پڑوسیوں کی عزت افزائی کرتی ہے۔
جب موت ہم سے قریب ہو اور اپنے پنجے گاڑ دے تو اعمال صالحہ پر ہمارا خاتمہ فرمانا پھر صلوۃ و سلام ہو بنو ھاشم کے خلاصہ پر جنکا حسب و نسب تیب و طاہر ہے۔
اور مخلوق کے سرداروں اور نبی اکرم صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ وآلہ وسلم مددگاروں، اور تقویٰ شعار آل پاک اور صحابہ کرام پر صلوٰۃ وسلام ہو۔
جب تک کسھی دار کبوتر مسرت بھرے لہجے میں چہچہاتے رہیں یا بلبل ہزاز داستان دلکش آوازوں کے ساتھ نغمہ سرا رہے۔

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّکَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّۃِ عَمَّا یَصِفُوْنَ۔وَسَلَامٌ عَلَی الْمُرْسَلِیْنَ۔ وَالحَمدُ لِلَّہِ رَبِّ العَالِمِین


مآخذ ومراجع

١۔ فواد عبد الباقی: المعجم المفھرس لالفاظ القرآن الکریم
٢۔ عبد البر: الاستیعاب
٣۔ ابن الاثیر: اسد الغابۃ
٤۔ ابن سعد: الطبقات الکبری
٥۔ حاکم : المستدرک
٦۔ برھان الدین حلبی: السیرۃ الحلبیۃ (انسان العیون)
٧۔ القسطلانی: المواھب اللدنیہ
٨۔ ابن کثیر: البدایۃ والنھایۃ
٩۔ ابن الجوزی: المنتظم
١٠۔ المقریزی: امتاع الاسماع
١١۔ ابن حجر العسقلانی: الاصابہ
١٢۔ قرطبی: التذکرہ
١٣۔ابن القیم: الروح
١٤۔ابن ہشام: السیرۃ النبویۃ
١٥۔السیوطی: انباء الاذکیاء بحیاۃ الانبیائ
١٦۔ السیوطی: الحاوی للفتاوی
١٧۔ واقدی: المغازی
١٨۔ السیوطی: الخصائص الکبری
١٩۔ ابن رجب الحنبلی: اھوال القبور
٢٠۔ ابن عبد البر: التمھید
٢١۔ ابن عبد البر: البیان والتحصیل
٢٢۔ ابن النجار:الدرۃ الثمنیہ فی تاریخ المدینہ
٢٣۔ابی برکات النسفی: تفسیر النسفی
٢٤۔ابن شبہ: تاریخ المدینہ المنورہ
٢٥۔ الرازی: التفسیر الکبیر
٢٦۔ الاصبھانی: الترغیب والترھیب
٢٧۔ النووی: تہذیب الاسماء واللغات
٢٨۔ الطبری: جامع البیان فی تاویل القرآن
٢٩۔ البیھقی: حیاۃ الانبیائ
٣٠۔البیھقی : دلائل النبوۃ
٣١۔ الطبری: ذخائر العقبی فی مناقب ذوی القربی
٣٢۔ الذھبی: ذیل تذکرۃ الحفاظ
٣٣۔ الکردی: رفع الخفا شرح ذات الشفائ
٣٤۔ ذھبی: سیر اعلام النبلائ
٣٥۔ صالحی: سبل الھدی والرشاد
٣٦۔ السجستانی: سنن ابی داود
٣٧۔ القزوینی: سنن ابی ماجہ
٣٨۔ السیوطی: شرح الصدور بشرح حال الموتی والقبور
٣٩۔ ابن العماد الحنبلی:شذرات الذھب فی اخبار من ذھب
٤٠۔ ابن الجوزی: صفۃ الصفوۃ
٤١۔ ابن سید الناس: عیون الاثر
٤٢۔ ابن حجر العسقلانی: فتح الباری بشرح صحیح البخاری
٤٣۔ تقی الدین السبکی: فتاوی السبکی
٤٤۔ السمھودی: وفاء الوفاء باخبار دار المصطفیٰ
٤٥۔ الشیبانی: مسند امام احمد
منقبتِ سید الشہداء حضرت سیدنا حمزہ رضی اللہ تعالی عنہ

آپ ہیں دین کے نگہبان جناب حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ
ہے اٹل اپنا یہ ایقان جنابِ حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ

ناز کرتی ہے تواریخ شجاعت پہ ُہنوز
قابل رشک ہے یہ شانِ جنابِ حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ

جس جگہ نوش کیا جام شہادت بے خوف
ہے شفق زار وہ میدان جنابِ حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ

انتہا ہے یہ محمدؐ سے وفاداری کی
کر گئے جان بھی قربان جنابِ حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ

دل میں قندیل عقیدت ہی رہیگی روشن
ہے جسے آپ کا عرفان جنابِ حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ

بن گئی شمع رسالت کے لئے اک فانوس
جب اُٹھا کُفر کا طوفان جنابِ حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ

خواب ہی میں کبھی دیدار میّسر ہو مجھے
ہے میرے دل کا یہ ارمان جنابِ حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ

ماری اس زور سے بو جہل کے چہرے پہ کمان
قوت کفر تھی حیران جنابِ حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ

بزم ہستی میں ہمیشہ ہی رہے گا چرچا
ہے یہ الطاف کا ایمان جناب حمزہ رضی اللہ عنہ
سید الشہداء حضرت حمزہ رضی اللہ تعالی عنہ کے مزار مبارک کی تصویر جو سنہ ۱۹۰۵ بمطابق ۱۳۲
٦ ھجری میں لی گئی

Posted by: Seeker of the Sacred Knowledge | September 12, 2011

The Etiquette of Seeking Knowledge

The Islamic tradition teaches us that both students of sacred knowledge and their teachers have lofty principles and refined codes of conduct that they must adhere to in order to ensure that they can truly achieve virtue through their knowledge and that God opens up for them (futūḥ) the full extent of wisdom and perception.  From the most distinguished of these etiquettes (ādāb) that must accompany teaching and seeking knowledge are the following.

1)      To have respect in one’s heart and exhibit reverence for gatherings of knowledge.  This is embodied in some of the following practices:

a)       To have ritual purity and cleanliness before leaving to attend gatherings of knowledge.  The Companions of the Prophet (PBUH) and their followers used to be very attentive to this matter.  It is reported that Imām Mālik used to be meticulous in his veneration of gatherings of knowledge to the point that before narrating hadiths, he would make wuḍūʼ, wear his best clothes, sit upon his cushion, comb his beard, put on perfume, and sit in the most dignified and respectful posture.  When asked about this he replied, “I love to exalt the hadiths of the Messenger of God (PBUH).”      

Another form of purification before attending gatherings of learning is that of the purification of the heart from traits such as backbiting, envy, grudges, and other spiritual diseases through various forms of worship and acts of obedience.  This is done to exert an effort to expand one’s heart and state of mind in a way that will make the student more susceptible to absorbing knowledge and implementing it.  It is commonly said, “In the presence of scholars guard your tongue.  And in the presence of the knowers of God, guard your heart.”

b)      A student should come in a state of stillness of the heart, mind, and body (sakīna) along with a demeanor of a dignified seriousness (waqār) that is derived from an understanding of the gravity and significance of being in a circle of learning.  Ḥasan al-Baṣrī used to say, “Seek knowledge and seek in order to [attain] knowledge stillness and seriousness (sakīna wa al-waqār) as well as humility towards whom you are learning from and towards those you are teaching.” 

Due to the intense reverence that Imām Mālik had for the hadiths of the Prophet (PBUH), it is reported that he once remained seated in the same position while teaching for four hours, even though he had been stung by a scorpion and his color had changed.  Upon being asked about this he replied, “I did not want to interrupt the hadiths of the Messenger of God (PBUH).”  In this is revealed the depth of Imām Mālik’s understanding of the majesty of God and the rank of His Messenger, upon him be peace.  Indeed, God has said in the Qur’an, “Whoever honors the symbols of God, verily it is from the piety of the hearts.”[1]

2)    To have humility and respect for scholars and to honor them.

Humility is an essential characteristic that a student must have to truly benefit from his or her teacher.  In the hadith of the Messenger of God (PBUH), when the angel Jibrīl (AS) came to ask the Prophet (PBUH) about Islam, Imān, and Iḥsān, he is described as having, “put his knees against the knees [of the Prophet PBUH] and placed his hands on his thighs.”[2]  When the Companions used to sit with the Messenger of God (PBUH), they did not used to raise their heads up to him out of their reverence for him.  It is reported on the authority of Anas (RA), “If the Messenger of God (PBUH) used to enter the mosque, none of us used to raise our heads except Abū Bakr and ʽUmar.  They used to smile at him and he used to smile at them.”[3]    It is also reported on the authority of ʽUbāda b. al-Ṣāmit that the Messenger of God (PBUH) said regarding respecting scholars and honoring them, “He is not from my community who does not venerate our elders, have mercy on our youth, and know the rights of our scholars.”[4]

            Imām ʽAlī (RA) would say regarding the manners of respect a student should have with his or her teacher, “From the rights of the scholar over you is that you give greeting to people generally and greet him specifically, that you do not ask him questions excessively, you do not meet his answers with discord, you do not pressure him if he tires, you do not grab his garment if he sets forth, you do not reveal to him secrets, you do not back bite anyone in his presence, you do not seek out his shortcomings, and if he makes a mistake you accept his excuse.  It is incumbent upon you to respect and honor him for the sake of God as long as he adheres to the commands of God.  And [you must not] sit with your back towards him, and if he has a need you should hasten before everyone in serving him.”

            It is related by Shaʽbī that, Zayd b. Thābit led a funeral prayer.  He then brought his riding animal near so he could ride it and  Ibn ʽAbbās came to assist him in mounting.  Upon this, Zayd said, “Do not do this O, son of the Messenger of God’s uncle.”  Ibn ʽAbbās replied, “This is how he ordered us to treat our scholars and elders.”

            Sufyān al-Thawrī entered the gathering of Imām Mālik while his students around him were seated as if there were birds perched on their heads.  He later recited the following poem to describe this:

يأبى الجواب فلا يراجع هيبة          والسائلون نواكس الأذقان

أدب الوقار وعز سلطان التقى       فهو المهيب وليس ذا سلطان

He refuses to answer [excessive questions and the questioner] will not return out of awe

Those who ask [in his presence] sit with their necks bent

Refined manners, grace, and the dignity of a chief of piety

He inspires awe [in hearts] yet he is no king

Al-Shāfiʽī said: “Out of my reverence for him, I used to turn pages while being seated in the presence of Mālik with gentleness so that he does not hear the pages turn.”

It is related by Ṣāliḥ b. Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, “Al-Shāfiʽī came one day to visit my father while he was ill.  He [Ibn Ḥanbal] leapt towards him, kissed him between the eyes, made him sit in his place and he sat in front of him.”  He said, “Then he spoke to him for an hour.  When al-Shāfiʽī got up to leave, my father rose and took hold of his saddle and walked with him.  When [news] of this reached Yaḥya b. Maʽīn, he questioned my father saying, ‘O Abū ʽAbd Allāh, subḥānallah!  Were you forced to walk by the side of al-Shāfiʽī’s riding animal?’  My father replied, ‘And you O Abū Zakariyya, had you walked on the other side you would have benefitted.’  Then he said, ‘Who wishes for goodness should follow the tail of that beast.’”  It was said to Iskandar, “Why is your reverence for your spiritual guide (al-muʽaddib) greater than your reverence for your father?”  He said, “Because my father is the cause of my temporary life while my spiritual guide is the cause of [success] in my eternal life.”    

            Many of the Muslim rulers and caliphs also used to give immense importance to knowledge and the reverence of scholars.  It is related that Hārūn al-Rashīd used to send his two sons al-Amīn and al-Māʼmūn to learn from Imām al-Kisāʼī who was one of the seven reciters of the Qur’an.  One day after class was finished; al-Amīn and al-Maʼmūn were competing to carry the sandals of the shaykh.  Each one wanted to carry them and then they settled for each of them carrying one sandal.  Meanwhile, Hārūn al-Rashīd was watching them from an elevated place in his residence.  He later invited him to a table he had prepared for him.  He then asked him during the meal, “Who is the happiest of people?”  The shaykh said to him: “You are O Leader of the Believers.”  He said, “No.  The happiest of people is the one who the two heirs of the Leader of the Believers (amīr al-muʼminīn) quarrel to carry his sandals.”

            From amongst the forms of respect that students must have for teachers is that they should listen with complete attentiveness, even if the teacher is saying something which they already know from a quote, story, or poem.  ʽAṭāʼ said, “I listen to a hadith from a man and I am more knowledgeable of it than him.  However, I do not show him that I surpass him in anything.”  Similarly, he should not precede the scholar in explaining a matter or answering a question posed by one of the students. It is said, “Learn silence the way you learn to speak.  And be more vigilant about listening than speaking.”    


   As for humility, this not only means that students should be in a state of humbleness while learning but that they must also humble themselves to knowledge in the exertion of their efforts to seek it.  Ibn ʽAbbās used to say, “I lowered myself seeking, and then I became sought (dhalaltu ṭāliban fafiztu maṭlūban).”  It is also related that he said, “When the Messenger of God (PBUH) died, I said to a man from the Anṣār come lets seek out the Companions of the Messenger of God (PBUH) for they are many today.  He said, ‘I am surprised by you, O Ibn ʽAbbās!  Whom amongst the Companions of the Messenger of God (PBUH) do you see as better than yourself?’  He said, ‘So I left him and I set out to ask the Companions of the Messenger of God (PBUH) and [news of] a hadith from a man had reached me.  I came to the door of the one saying [the hadith] and I spread my cloak on his doorstep, all the while the wind was blowing sand in my face.  He came out and saw me and said, ‘O son of the Messenger of God’s (PBUH) uncle, what brought you here?  Had you sent for me, I would have come.’  I said to him, ‘It is more fitting that I should come to you.’ He said, ‘And I asked him about the hadith.  This man of the Anṣār then lived until he saw me when people had gathered around me asking me, and he would say ‘This youth is more intelligent than me.’”

            It is also related that Ibn Shihāb al-Zuhrī would not abandon anyone he knew to possess any knowledge except that he sought him out and found him.  Ibrāhīm b. Saʽd said, “I asked my father, how did Ibn Shihāb surpass you?”  He said, ‘He used to come to the center of gatherings and not leave an elderly person except that he asked him and not leave a youth except that he asked him.  Then he used to go to the homes of the Anṣār and he would not leave a youth he did not ask or an elderly person he did not ask.  He used to even speak to the women of the households.’” 

            Finally, it is incumbent that a student does not acquire pride or vanity after having gained an amount of knowledge, remembering that it is ultimately God who granted this to him or her.  Also because the amount of knowledge that one has accumulated regardless of the heights a student has reached is insignificant in comparison to the knowledge of God the Exalted and High.  God says in the Qur’an, “He has taught humans what they knew not.”[5]  He also says, “And God took you out of the wombs of your mothers [with] you not knowing anything.”[6]  God also says, “I have not given you from knowledge except a little,”[7] and He says, “Above each [person] with knowledge is [one] more knowledgeable.”[8]

3)      Sincerity:  It is essential that those seeking of knowledge do so with an intention sincerely for the sake of God, both when learning and practicing it.  This is also the case when teaching and spreading knowledge.  The Messenger of God (PBUH) said, “Who learns a science which is learnt for the sake of God not seeking from it anything but a portion of the world will not smell the scent of Heaven on the Day of Resurrection.”[9]  He also said, “Whoever learns knowledge to rival scholars, to debate with fools, or to draw people to him, is in the Fire.”[10]  Ḥasan al-Baṣrī said, “The punishment of the scholars is the death of the heart.  The death of the heart is seeking the world through the works for one’s hereafter.”  And Sahl has said, “All of knowledge is of this world except for the portion one practices which is of the other world.  And all of deeds are dust except for sincerity.”

4)      Trustworthiness:  From the codes of conduct associated with knowledge in the Islamic tradition is trustworthiness (amāna).  In a related hadith, “Be faithful in knowledge for the betrayal of one in his knowledge is worse than his betrayal in his property.  And God will be your questioner on the Day of Resurrection.”[11]  From the trusts of knowledge is that the scholar remains within the bounds of what he knows and does not say that which he does not know.  Also, from intellectual honesty is to attribute sayings and ideas to their sources. 

[1] Qur’an, Al-Ḥajj: 32. [2] Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim: vol.i/ Kitāb al-imān 1-bāb 1/h. 1

[3] Al-Mustadrak: vol.i/ p.121. 

[4] Majmaʽ al-zawāʼid: vol.i/p.127

[5] Qur’an, Al-ʽAlaq: 5.

[6] Qur’an, Al-Naḥl: 78.

[7] Qur’an, Al-Isrāʼ: 85.

[8] Qur’an, Yūsuf: 76.

[9] Sunan Ibn Māja: vol.i/al-Muqaddima-bāb 23/h. 252

[10] Majmaʽ al-zawāʼid: vol.i/ p. 141.

[11] Majmaʽ al-zawāʼid: vol.i/ p.183.

Posted by: Seeker of the Sacred Knowledge | September 12, 2011

Equality of Man and Woman [Explained]‏

All Praises is due to Almighty Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala, Peace and Blessings be upon the most perfect of creations, His Beloved Habeeb, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam his noble Family and the illustrious Sahaba Ridwanullahi Ta’ala Alaihim Ajma’een and all the pious servants of Almighty Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala.


The religion of Islam gave women an honorable status and true dignity. Before the advent of Islam, women had no rights of any kind, or an independent identity in any form. The great importance of the Muslim woman’s role – whether as wife, sister, or daughter, and the rights that are due to her and the rights that are due from her – have been explained in the Glorious Qur’an, and further details of this have been explained in the purified Sunnah.

With the advent of Islam came the verse from the Qur’an condemning those who practiced female infanticide:

واذا بشر احدهم بالانثى ظل وجهه مسودا وهو كظيم۔ يتوارى من القوم من سوء ما بشر به ايمسكه على هون ام يدسه في التراب الا ساء ما يحكمون۔
“And when one among of them receives the glad tidings of a daughter, his face turns black for the day, and he remains seething. Hiding from the people because of the evil of the tidings; “Will he keep her with disgrace, or bury her beneath the earth?”; pay heed! Very evil is the judgment they impose!” [Surah an-Nahl : 58/59]

The Holy Qur’an makes no distinction between man and woman as regards to the fundamental human rights. Here we may specifically state that woman, like man, is the possessor of free personality, and enjoys equality with man, in respect of:


Her spiritual and moral status:

The Qur’an says:

للرجال نصيب مما اكتسبوا وللنساء نصيب مما اكتسبن
“…Unto men the benefit of what they earn (of virtue) and unto women the benefit of what they earn (of virtue)” [Surah al-Nisa : 32]

i.e. in matters of spiritual grace both, man and woman, enjoy equal status and are independent of one another. A woman’s responsibility in faith is exactly the same as that of a man. Women are to pray, fast, give charity, perform the pilgrimage and perform other forms of Ibadah. A woman is rewarded for this just like a man. A woman must believe in the Oneness of Almighty Allah, the Books of Almighty Allah , the Angels of Almighty Allah, the Prophets of Almighty, the Day of Resurrection, the Day of Judgment and Heaven and Hell, and Predestination.

Her economic rights:

The Qur’an says:

للرجال نصيب مما ترك الوالدان والاقربون وللنساء نصيب مما ترك الوالدان والاقربون مما قل منه او كثر نصيبا مفروضا
“Unto the men (of a family) belongs a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, and unto the women a share of that which the parents and near kindred leave, whether it be little or much – a legal share.” [Surah al-Nisa : 7]


Her legal rights:

The Qur’an says:

ولهن مثل الذي عليهن بالمعروف
“…And they (women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them, according to what is equitable…” [Surah al-Baqarah : 228]

Islam ensured a dignified life to the fair sex, which was hitherto treated in an unfair manner. Woman became the mistress of the household. Man was not allowed to beat or manhandle them nor deprive them of their share in the property.  The Holy Qur’an declared:

لا تضار والدة بولدها ولا مولود له بولده
“A mother should not be made to suffer because of her child, nor he to whom the child is born (be made to suffer) because of his child (because both are equal before the law)…” [Surah al-Baqarah : 233]

Her right for gaining the Knowledge:

Islam has made it a duty on every Muslim male and female to gain knowledge, which is considered to be a superior act of worship in Islam. In Islam, therefore both men and women are credited with the capacity for learning, understanding and teaching. Knowledge is not only limited to the religious knowledge but includes all forms of knowledge. Acquiring knowledge will enable Muslim women and men to get a better perception and understanding of the world around them and make them more conscious of Almighty Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala.



The status of Muslim women as defined in Islam is very important because women make up half of society and they are responsible for nurturing, guidance and reformation of the subsequent generations of men and women. It is the female who imbues principles and faith into the souls of the nation. Indeed, the Muslim woman is the initial teacher in building a righteous society. Islam brought a new lease of life to women. Islam elevated the status of women to great heights so high that she stood shoulder to shoulder with man. In the Islamic family, the role of men and women is complementary rather than competitive. Their duties are described as equal in importance but not identical in substance.

Now, the issue of feminism in Islam is meaningless. The coming of Islam has brightened the life and future of women, in which Islam has lifted up their level. Islam upholds women to the highest and most respected position.

I hope my effort will be appreciated and my sisters in faith will surely remember me in their prayers for peace and prosperity, health and happiness and Allah’s SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala Mercy and Favour. May Almighty Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala, through the Waseela of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam accept this humble effort; and may He SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala give us the Toufeeq and Hidayah to restore the true rights to our Muslim women as dictated by Islam. Aameen!!


N.B.: I do not intend to restrict the readership of this note to sisters only; brothers also can benefit from this note. May Almighty Allah’s blessings be always with us and our families. Aameen!!
The Mujaddid of the 14th Century is Mawlana alHaaj al-Hafidh al-Qarī Muhammad Ahmad Rida Khan al-Qadrī al-Barkāti al-Baraylwī radiyallahu ta’ala ‘anhu. He was born in the town of Bareilly [northern Indian state of U.P.) at the time of Duhr prayer on 10th Shawwal, 1272 AH and demised on 25th Safar, 1340 AH. He was named Muhammad and a historic name of al-Mukhtar (1272 AH) was given to him. Due to his fervent love for the Messenger şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam; Imām Ahmad Rida would write Abdul Mustafa before his name. He was a master of Abjad and he deduced his year of birth from the verse of the Holy Qur’ān: These are they in whose hearts Allah has inscribed faith and helped them with a spirit from Himself. [58:22]

Education and Upbringing

His initial education was taught by (1) Mirza Qadir Baig al-Baraylwī (d. 1297 AH) and he completed his education with his father, (2) Mawlana Naqī Alī Khan al-Baraylwī. He also took knowledge of Islam and Ijazahs in Hadīth from the following scholars:

1. Mawlana Abdul Ali Khan Rampurī (d. 1303 AH) – student of ‘Allama Fazle Haq Khairabadī
2. Shah Abu’l Husain Ahmad al-Nūrī Marehrawī (d. 1324 AH) – student of Mawlana Nūr Ahmad Badayunī
3. Shah Aale Rasūl Marehrawī (d. 1297 AH) – student of Shah Abdul Azīz Muhaddith Dihlawī (d. 1239 AH)

Imam Ahmad Rida went to Shah Aale Rasūl Marehrawī Radi Allahu Ta’ala ‘anhu along with his father and ‘Allama Abdul Qadir Badayunī (d. 1319 AH) who was the son of ‘Allama Fazle Rasūl Badayunī (d. 1289 AH). During their very first meeting, Imām Ahmad Rida was granted Bay’ah, Ijazah and Khilafah. Upon seeing this extraordinary event, some of the disciples of Shah Aale Rasūl exclaimed that they had been busy in worship and spiritual training for such a long time yet had not received the same benevolence. Shah Aale Rasūl answered this query by saying: “Others have to be trained whilst these people came already trained”. He then said:

“I was worried for a long time over a problem, but, by the grace of Allah, today that issue has been resolved. When Allah asks me on the day of Judgement, “Oh Aale Rasūl! What have you bought with you?” I will then present my Ahmad Rida”.

4. Imām al-Shafi’iyah Shaykh Husain Salih (d. 1302 AH)
5. Mufti Hanafiya Shaykh Abdur Rahman Siraj (d. 1301 AH)
6. Mufti Shafi’iyah Shaykh Ahmad bin Zayn Dahlan (d. 1299 AH) – Qadi al-Quddat, Makkah

His Knowledge

Imām Ahmad Rida specialised in over fifty branches of knowledge including: Tafsīr, Hadīth, Fiqh, Usūl al-Fiqh, ‘Aqaid and Kalam, Tasawwuf, Nahw, Sarf, History, Logic, Philosophy, Astronomy, Astrology and Mathematics.

Imām Ahmad Rida lived for 28 years, 2 months and 5 days in the 13th century, in which he gained recognition due to his efforts in writing and research, teaching and sermons; and he lived for 39 years, 1 month and 25 days of the 14th century, which he spent in holding up the flag of Islam, refuting the innovators, promoting the truth and fighting against falsehood. He supported the Sunnah and challenged the Bid’ah. Whenever and howsoever he possibly could, he used his knowledge to promote the Sharī’āh and refute all types of falsehood – and in doing so – he did not let anything stop him including any important personalities. He never craved fame and praise nor did he care what people said against him as long as he spoke the truth.

He was given such a brilliant mind that he completed his religious education at the age of 13 years and 10 months. He is amongst the greatest Hadith scholars of his age and in Fiqh, the whole of the 14th century did not produce a jurist to his like. Hence, ‘Allama Iqbal pays tribute to his juristic brilliance thus:

Hindustan did not produce such a genius Faqīh as him. I have read his fatawa and they are proof of his extraordinary intellect. When Mawlana forms an opinion; he sticks to it. This is because he only decrees a ruling after careful thought. Hence, there is never any need to change any ruling.

Imām Ahmad Rida was also a poet par excellence. His collection of religious poetry, Hada’iq-e-Bakhshish, has received praise by hundreds of poets, researchers, critics and scholars. There have also been Ph.D. theses that have been completed on his poetry.

He was also a master of ancient and modern philosophy. This can be seen from books of his such as al-Kalimatu’l Mulhima, Nuzul-e-Ayaat-e-Furqan and Fauz-e-Mubeen. As for his acumen relating to secular sciences, his answer to Sir Dr. Ziauddin’s mathematical problem is proof enough. Sir Ziauddin, vice chancellor of Muslim University, Aligarh, was sent to Imām Ahmad Rida by Mawlana Sayyid Sulayman Ashraf. Mufti Burhan Ul-Haq was eye-witness to this event and said:

Dr. Ziauddin came outside and addressed Sayyid Sulaiman Ashraf and said that it is doubtful that such a fine scholar is alive today. Allah has given him such knowledge that my mind is baffled. Alongside religious knowledge, he has such plentiful knowledge of mathematics, algebra and geometry that he solved that problem in a matter of minutes that I could not solve in weeks. He is certainly worthy of a Nobel Prize but he is not hungry for fame. May Allah grant him a long life and may He let people benefit from him. [1]

Imām Ahmad Rida possessed a very powerful memory. He himself says that some people who are not well acquainted with me write Hafidh with my name. I am not a Hafidh but when I hear someone recite a part of the Holy Qur’ān, I can then repeat the same part back to them. When he did memorise the whole Qur’ān, it only took him a month where he would memorise one chapter a day between ‘Asr and Maghrib.

He was also able to read very quickly and retain what he had read. He borrowed ‘Uqud ad-Dariya from Mawlana Wasī Ahmad Muhaddith Surati and managed to read the two-volume work in one day. When asked what he would do when he needed to quote from the book, he replied that the contents of the book were now in his mind for ever.

His mastery of Fiqh

It is normally the case that scholars begin to pen their works after they have graduated from their religious education. However, Imām Ahmad Rida is amongst those scholars who began to author books during their student days. He began to issue judicial verdicts the very day he graduated and the very first fatwa he ever decreed was so well researched and comprehensive that his father, Mawlana Naqī Ali Khan – himself a renowned Mufti of his era – was astounded. Imām Ahmad Rida began writing fatawa at the tender age of 13 years and 10 months and continued this till his demise in 1340 AH – a total of 54 years.

It is unfortunate that some of his earlier fatawa could not be kept safe. Those that remain have been gathered in the form of al-‘Ataya al-Nabawiya fi al-Fatawa al-Ridawiyah. They cover 12 volumes, each of 900-1000 pages. Finding such a voluminous fatwa work is rare and the research qualities of Imām Ahmad Rida can be seen throughout the work. The fatawa have been a source of reference for the Hanafi School ever since they were written.

The total number of monographs and books written by him number around 1000 that cover over 50 subject areas. By 1887, at the age of 30 years, he had already written 75 books and treatises and by 1909, at the age of 43 years, this number had increased to approximately 500.

As is evident, Imām Ahmad Rida did write a lot of books but what must be noted is that the quantity of books is not what makes Imām Ahmad Rida great; it is the quality of each one that makes him great. In many cases, one page written by Imām Ahmad Rida is more valuable than whole books of other scholars.

His excellence in Fiqh can be seen from the number of references he cites for each issue. Some examples of this are seen below:

1. Can the Janazah prayer be repeated? Imām Ahmad Rida compiled a monograph on this matter and dealt with the issue by segregating it into 10 categories. He cited 207 references and at another place also gathered 40 other references of Hadith and books of Fiqh.

2. Can the Awliya hear and assist after their demise? He answered this by compiling a lengthy monograph named Hayat al-Mawat fi Bayani Sama’il Amwat. He first cited 60 ahadith and then gathered 200 sayings of the Sahaba, Tabi’in and then gathered a further 100 references of those scholars that are revered by the Wahābīs. Not just this, he then compiled another 150 page book on this issue.

3. He was asked about making Dū’ā after Salah. He cited one verse of the Holy Qur’ān and then presented a hadîth from 10 different books whereas Mawlana Abdul Haleem Farangi Mahalli only presented one hadîth as his answer and Molvi Muhammad Nazeer Husain, the leader of the Ahle Hadith, also only managed one hadîth.

4. Abiding by times of Salah is compulsory and joining prayers is impermissible. He wrote a monograph on this issue named Hajiz al-Bahrain in which he presented 7 verses of the Holy Qur’ān and 36 ahadīth from famous books of Hadīth.

5. The famous Hadith scholar of the age, ‘Allama Wasī Ahmad Muhaddith Surati, asked Imām Ahmad Rida a question regarding the ‘Imaama . The latter gathered 40 ahadith on the blessings of the ‘Imaama and also their references. Muhaddith Surati also questioned about a Hadīth that some claimed was weak. Imām Ahmad Rida replied in a way that all allegations were refuted.

Other aspects of his superlative knowledge of Fiqh can be seen from his answers to perennial issues. For example, when the issue of currency notes arose, the scholars were baffled. Even the Hanafi Mufti of Makkah, Mawlana Jamal bin Abdullah, was unable to provide a comprehensive answer and left it by saying:

العلم امانۃ فى اعناق العلما

It is a favour upon the whole Muslim ummah that Imām Ahmad Rida answered the question with utmost clarity. When he went to his second Hajj in 1323 AH, news of the brilliance of al-Dawlah al-Makkiyah had spread far and wide. Hence, the scholars took advantage of his visit and asked 12 questions about currency notes. Imām Ahmad Rida wrote Kifl al-Faqih al-Fahim and when he went to the library of Haram on 4th Safar 1324 AH, he found the Mufti-e-Hanafiya, Mawlana Abdullah bin Siddiq, reading Kifl al-Faqih and when he reached the point where Imām Ahmad Rida had cited Fath al-Qadir­ which said that: If a man wishes to sell a piece of paper for Rs. 1000, then this is permissible; the Mufti was shocked and whilst hitting his thigh he exclaimed: “Jamal bin Abdullah, how did you miss such a clear evidence?” By saying this, the current Mufti was addressing the Mufti of old .

Imām Ahmad Rida was a great Faqīh because he was able to convey what Fuqaha before him had researched in their own books but he was also able to add his own research to issues. For example, Fatawa Ridawiyah has 311 points on Tayammum whereas previous works of Fiqh have 72. The additional 239 points have been derived by Imām Ahmad Rida himself.

His Mastery of Hadīth

For one to be a Muhaddith; it is not necessary to be a Faqīh but to be a Faqīh, one must be a Muhaddith and Imām Ahmad Rida was an undisputed Imām of Fiqh. He had a vast knowledge of Hadīth and its related sciences including Turuq, Nasikh and Mansūkh, Rajih and Marjūh, Tatbīq and Rijal. Sayyid Muhammad Muhaddith Kachochawi writes:

His knowledge of Hadīth can be seen by the fact that all the ahadīth that are the foundation of the Hanafi School were in his memory and those ahadith by which the Hanafi school is challenged; Imām Ahmad Rida knew the weaknesses of their Sanad and the meanings of all of them. The knowledge of Asma’ al-Rijal is the most difficult science of Hadīth; however, if any Sanad was recited before Imām Ahmad Rida and he was asked about any narrator, he would mention the strengths and weaknesses of each narrator with specific words and when the books of Rijal were checked, those exact words were found therein. [2]

Concerning the etiquettes of Takhrīj al-Hadīth, Imām Ahmad Rida wrote a monograph named al-Rawd al-Baheej fi Adab al-Takhreej. Mawlana Rahman Ali writes about this work:

If there is no book before this on this topic, then the writer can be called the inventor of this science. [3]

Sayyid Muhammad Muhaddith Kachochawi once asked his teacher, Mawlana Sayyid Wasī Ahmad Muhaddith Surati: “Was the rank of Imam Ahmad Raza the same as yours in the field of Hadith?” The latter replied, “Not at all, not at all”. He then said, “Do you understand what I mean by this? Imām Ahmad Rida is Amīr al-Mu’minīn fi’l Hadīth and if I study Hadīth at his feet for many years, I will still not reach his rank”.

Imām Ahmad Rida was once questioned about how many books of Hadīth he had studied. He replied with the names of 29 books and said that he had studied over 50 books of Hadīth. Moreover, when one researcher studied 356 books of Imām Ahmad Rida, he found citations therein from not just 50 books but 240 books of Hadīth. As mentioned, these 240 books are mentioned in just 356 of his books whereas he has authored approximately 1000 books; hence, this number is likely to be much greater.

Many a time, for only one hadîth, he cites up to 25 references. He wrote 45 books specifically on Hadīth and when answering questions, he would cite extensively from the books of Hadīth. A few examples are given:

· Is it allowed to refer to Sayyidinā Rasūlullah şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam as ‘the remover of difficulties’? Answering this, Imām Ahmad Rida wrote al-Amnu wa’l ‘Ula wherein he proved his motif by presenting 60 verses and 300 ahadith.

Some Wahabis denied the fact that Sayyidinā Rasūlullah şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam is the best of creation. Imām Ahmad Rida answered this fallacious claim by gathering 100 ahadith and named this monograph Tajalli al-Yaqeen bi Anna Nabiyyina Sayyida’l Mursaleen.

· When asked about having a feast to remove the difficulties of famine and smallpox, Imām Ahmad Rida presented 60 ahadith to show its permissibility.

· Whilst burying the nonsensical claim of Prophethood by Mirza Qadiani, Imām Ahmad Rida wrote a monograph wherein he presented 121 ahadith which demolished Mirza’s claim.

· On the issue of the second Adhan for Jumu’ah, Imām Ahmad Rida wrote Shama’im al-Anbar in Arabic in which he gathered 45 ahadith.

· Regarding the hearing of the dead, he presented 60 ahadith.

· On the creation of Angels, he cited 24 ahadith.

· About dyeing the hair, he presented 16 ahadith.

· Regarding Mu’aniqa , he cited 16 ahadith.

· On the importance of the beard, he gathered 56 ahadith.

· On the rights of parents, he presented 91 ahadith.

· Regarding the impermissibility of the prostration of reverence, he put forward 70 ahadith.

· On intercession, he gathered 40 ahadith.

· On the issue of pictures, he cited 27 ahadith.

His Knowledge of Tafsīr

Though he did not compile a single Tafsīr of the whole Qur’ān; he did compile numerous works that relate to Tafsīr. He wrote marginalia to books of Tafsīr and when he did write a commentary of just one Surah – Surah ad-Duha – he wrote 600 pages. Glimpses of majestic knowledge of Tafsīr can be seen in numerous works of his.

His Translation of the Holy Qur’ān

One of his most outstanding works is his translation of the Holy Qur’ān into Urdu which he named Kanzu’l Iman fi Tarjamatu’l Qur’ān which is unique and unparalleled in every sense. Each and every line of this translation gives glimpses of the beauty of the Holy Qur’ān and shows his mastery of the sciences of Tafsir. The translation takes into account the Glory of Allah and the perfection of His Messenger şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam; hence, it is free from the faults that are found in other translations.

Hajj and visitation to the Sacred Sanctuaries

Imām Ahmad Rida performed Hajj twice – in 1295 AH and 1323 AH. His books al-Muneeratu’l Wadiya, al-Jaamu’s Sunnah, Fatawa al-Haramayn, Husam al-Haramayn, al-Dawlah al-Makkiya and Kiflu’l Faqih al-Fahim are all masterpieces in the Arabic language that he compiled during his visits to the sacred lands. Some of these books have scores of taqaridh from the scholars of Haramayn. This shows that the views and beliefs of Imām Ahmad Rida were the same as those held by the scholars of the sacred lands.

Imām Ahmad Rida was loved by the scholars of Haramayn. Shaykh Karimullah Muhajir Madani [student of Shaykh al-Dala’il Muhammad Abdul Haq Muhajir Madani (d. 1333AH)] writes his account thus:

I have spent many years in Madina. Thousands of people of knowledge including scholars and mystics come here. They can be found in every street of the city and the locals do not pay much attention to them. However, I see that many great scholars flock towards him and continuously show their respect and reverence. This is the favour of Allah that He grants to whomsoever He wishes. [4]

The famous historian, Mawlana Rahman Ali, adds:

After Maghrib at the station of Ibrahim ‘alaihis salam, Imam al-Shafi’iyah Husain bin Salih Jamalu’l Layl, without any introduction, grabbed the hand of Mawlana Ahmad Rida al-Baraylwī and looked at his face for a long time. He then said, اِنِّى لَاَجِدُ نُورَ اللّٰه مِن هٰذا الجَبيْن . He then granted him Ijazahs for both the Sihah Sitta and the Qadrī order with a special signature in which he named him as Ziauddin Ahmad. The sanad that he granted was unbroken till Imām Bukharī. [5]

Abu’l Hasan Ali Nadwi writes:

The scholars of Hijaz discussed some issues of Fiqh and Kalam with Imām Ahmad Rida and he wrote some monographs to present to them. He also answered some questions for them. His multitude of knowledge, speed of writing, acumen and intelligence left people amazed and astonished. [6]

The ‘Ulama turn to Imām Ahmad Rida [Marja’ul ‘Ulama]

Mawlana Waqaruddīn, the student of Mawlana Amjad Ali Aa’zmī, writes regarding the knowledge of Imām Ahmad Rida:

I taught at Madrasah Mazhar-e-Islam in Bareilly for approximately 9 years and was in charge of teaching the most advanced books. Whenever I came across any difficulty I would go to the library of Imām Ahmad Rida and look for the book within which I was having difficulty and would always find that Imam Ahmad Raza had written a marginalia in the book which solved my problem. I also found that those complex parts that are left alone by other commentators, Imām Ahmad Rida had written marginalia to even those.

Volumes 1-7 and 10-11 of Fatāwa Ridawiyyah contain a total of 4095 fatāwa. Out of this, 1061 are questions sent to Imām Ahmad Rida by other scholars. This shows that along with the general public, the scholars also turned to Imām Ahmad Rida to find solutions to their problems.

His refutation of Ahlu’l Bid’ah

Those who wished to challenge the greatness of Allah by attributing deficiencies to Him were refuted by Imām Ahmad Rida. He wrote Subhan al-Subbuh ‘an ‘Aybi Kadhibi al-Maqbuh and wrote another 5 monographs on the issue of Imkan-e-Kidhb. He also refuted those who believed in Allah having a body by compiling Qawari’ al-Qahhar ‘alal Mujassamatu’l Fujjar. Refuting ancient philosophers, he wrote a lengthy monograph named al-Kalimatu’l Mulhima. He strongly refuted those who insult and curse the dear Prophet şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam, his companions, his family, the Mujtahid Imams and the saints. As for the fitna of Qadian, he tore it from the roots by writing 5 monographs against it and was the first scholar to issue a fatwa of Kufr against it. It can easily be seen from his literary masterpieces that he strove against all the prevalent innovations of his era and saved the Muslim ummah from their dangers.

His love for Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam

Many scholars have paid tribute to his sincerity, honesty, piety and to the purity of his heart but the whole world pays tribute to his unfaltering adherence to the Qur’an and Sunnah and his love for Sayyidinā Rasūlullah şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam. Not only his followers; even unbiased opponents of his are witness to the reality of his love. He awakened such an inspiring love for the Prophet şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam that the dwellings of the heart began to shine like mirrors. Every day and night in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, England, Holland, the USA and Africa, his poetic masterpiece is heard thus:

مصطفٰى جانِ رحمت په لاكهوں سلام
شمع بزم هدايت په لاكهوں سلام

Whenever someone returned from Hajj, he would ask them if they had been to visit Sayyidinā Rasūlullah şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam and if they had, he would immediately kiss their feet.

Imām Ahmad Rida and the Scholars of Haramayn

Imām Ahmad Rida was not just a personality revered and accepted by the scholars of the Indian Subcontinent – even the scholars of Haramayn accepted his leadership and his status as the Mujaddid of his era. These are the words of some scholars of Makkah in praise of Imām Ahmad Rida.

Mawlana Muhammad Yusuf al-Afghani al-Makki writes:

الذى افتخربوجوده الزمان
He whose existence the era is proud of. [9]

Shaykh Salih Kamal Mufti Hanafiya writes:

A sea of merits, the coolness of the eyes of scholars, Mawlana, Muhaqqiq, the blessing of the era, Ahmad Rida Khan al-Baraylwi. May Allah preserve him. [10]

Shaykh Abu’l Khayr Mirdad writes:

Indeed he is that ‘Allama and Fadil who solves problems with the light of his eyes – his name is Ahmad Rida Khan. [11]

Shaykh Abdur Rahman Dahlan writes:

The one on whom the scholars rely; the ‘Allama of his time; the unique; for whom the scholars of Makka bear witness that he is the leader; the unmatched; the Imam; my master; my refuge; Hazrat Ahmad Raza Khan Barelwi. May Allah make us and all Muslims benefit from his life and may He give me his mission as his mission is the mission of Rasūlullah şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam. [12]

Shaykh Muhammad Mukhtar bin ‘Ata al-Jawi al-Makki writes:

Indeed the writer is the leader of the scholars and researchers and all his words are the truth. He is from the miracles of our Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam and Allah revealed this miracle at the hands of the Imam. [13]

Shaykh Musa Ali Shami al-Azhari Ahmad Darderwi Madani writes:

امام الاٮٔمة المجدد لهذه الامه
The Imam of Imams and the Mujaddid of the Muslim ummah. [14]

Shaykh Muhammad Yaseen Ahmad al-Khayari Madani praises him thus:

هو امام المحدثين
He is the Imam of the Hadith scholars. [15]

 ‘Allama Mawlana Tafaddal al-Haq Makki writes:

These answers show that the writer is an ‘Alim, ‘Allama, Fahhama and he is to the scholars as the eye is to the body. [16]

Due to weakness, Shaykh al-Khutaba, ‘Ustad al-‘Ulama, ‘Allama Mawlana al-Shaykh Ahmad Abu’l Khayr Mirdad was not able to visit Imām Ahmad Rida at the latter’s residence. The Shaykh heard al-Dawlah al-Makkiya from cover to cover and when Imām Ahmad Rida was about to leave Makkah, he respectfully touched the feet of the Shaykh. The Shaykh addressed Imām Ahmad Rida and said:

انا أقبل أرجلكم انا أقبل نعالكم
I would kiss your feet and I would kiss your shoes. [17]

Shaykh Mirdad also addressed Imām Ahmad Rida as:

شيخنا العلامه احمد رضا خاں بريلوى

Shaykh Sayyid Alawi Maliki Makki says:

When someone from India comes to Makka and we want to see if he is Sunni, we simply mention the name of Imām Ahmad Rida before him. If his face lights up with happiness, we know he is a Sunni and if he shows unhappiness at his mention, we know he is something else.

His Demise

The Imam of Ahlus Sunnah, the Mujaddid, Shaykh al-Islam wa’l Muslimīn, Imām Ahmad Rida Khan al-Hanafī al-Qadrī al-Barkatī al-Baraylwī passed away on 25th Safar, 1340 AH, at the age of 65. From beginning to end, this shining star of the Ummah was an embodiment of Sharī’āh. Hence, even on his death bed, he ordained that nothing be done in contravention to the Sunnah. He said:

From the food of the Fatiha, nothing should be given to the rich. Only the poor will be fed and that too with utmost respect. No-one will treat the poor badly and nothing will happen that is against the Sunnah. [18]

In the majority of cases, food from the Fatiha is only for the rich and only the poor miss out. Imām Ahmad Rida destroyed this ugly practice which was snatching the rights of the poor and in doing so he revived a dying Sunnah of the dear Prophet şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam.

The benevolence of Allah and His Prophet şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam remained with Imām Ahmad Rida till his demise. He said that my weakness has left me in such a state that I may not even recognise some of my own relatives but all the matters of the Sharī’āh are still with me and I have not forgotten any of them.

May Allah shower abundant blessings on the grave of the great Imam and may He raise us with him on the day of Judgement.

[1] Ikram-e-Imam Ahmad Raza, p.59-60, Lahore, 1981
[2] Maqalat-e-Yawm-e-Raza, ‘Abdun Nabi Kokab, vol.1, p.41
[3] Tadkirah ‘Ulama-e-Hind, Molvi Rahman Ali, Pakistan Historical Society, p.100
[4] Translation from Arabic – al-Ijazat al-Mateena, Mawlana Hamid Rida al-Qadrī al-Baraylwī
[5] Tadkirah ‘Ulama-e-Hind, p.16, Lucknow, 1914
[6] Translation from Arabic – Nuzhatu’l Khawatir, vol.8, p.38-39, Da’iratu’l Ma’arif, Hyderabad, 1970
[7] Salla’s Suyuf al-Hindiya – Imām Ahmad Rida
[8] Ashaddu’l Adhab, p. 13
[9] Husam al-Haramayn, p.62
[10] Ibid, p.25
[11] Ibid, p.23
[12] Ibid, p.46
[13] al-Dawlah al-Makkiya, p.166
[14] Ibid, p.203
[15] Rasa’il-e-Ridawiyyah, Mawlana Abdul Hakeem Shahjanhanpuri, p.148
[16] Ibid, p.136
[17] al-Malfūdh, vol.1, p.10 – Imām Ahmad Rida
[18] Wisāya Sharīf, written on 28th October, 1921 – Imām Ahmad Rida
Posted by: Seeker of the Sacred Knowledge | September 8, 2011

Using Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for other than a Sahabi‏

All Praises is due to Almighty Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala, Peace and Blessings be upon the most perfect of creations, His Beloved Habeeb, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam his noble Family and the illustrious Sahaba Riwanullahi Ta’ala Alaihim Ajma’een and all the pious servants of Almighty Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala.

I have been writing and reciting Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anho whenever the name of the Exalted names of Glorious SaHaba and dignified Awliya Allah Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhum Ajma’een is mentioned following the practice of highly ranked Ulama (Scholars) and Pious people of Ahl as-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah. And for the same reason, I have been writing Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anho with names of Awliya and Ulama in my notes. I found few people, sharing with me their confusion over using Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for other than a SaHabi and I also found few deviants, who were creating confusions in the minds of our unaware Muslims Brothers and Sisters for which I thought to provide them a note proving it to be permissible and a practice of prominent and pious scholars of Islam.


Dear Brothers and Sisters, Use of Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for other than a companion of the Beloved Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him is permissible as written in Durr al-Mukhtar:

1. To use Radi Allahu Ta’ala for a companion is Mustahab and for Taba’een and others, raHmatullahi Ta’ala Alaih is recommended and its opposite, that is , rahmatullahi Ta’ala alaih for a companion and Radi Allahu Ta’ala for Taba’een and others is also permissible. [Durr al-Mukhtar , Vol 5, Page 480]

2. Alla’ma al-Khaffaji in his Naseem ar-Riyadh [Sharah al-Shifa of Qadi Ayad Al Mailki] writes : “It is permissible to use Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Masha’ikh and others.” [Naseem ar-Riyadh, Vol 3, Page 509]

3. Shayh Abdul Haq Muhaddith al Dehalwi has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Hadrat Owais al- Qarni, who was not a companion. [Ashi’at-ul-Lama’at, Vol 4, Page 743]

4. Imam Ibn Abideen uses Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Abu Hanifa at many places. [Rad Al-Muhtar, Vol 1, Printed from Deoband, Page 35, 36, 37 and Page 42 , Total Six times]

5. Imam Ibn Abideen has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Shafi’i at seven places. [Page  35, 38, 41, 43] and has also used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Sahl bin Abdullah al –Tustari. [Page 38] [Radd al – Muhtar, Vol 1]

6. Imam Haskafi has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Shafi’i and Abdullah bin Mubarak. [Durr al-Mukhtar ,Vol 1 , Page 45]

7. Imam Fakhr al-Din Razi has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Abu Hanifa. [Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol 6, Page 382]

8. Imam Ali Al Qari has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Shafi’i. [Mirqat, Vol 1, Page 3 – Bombay Edition]

9. Sayyid Ahmed Tahtawi has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Abu Hanifa. [Tahtawi ‘ala al-Miraqi, Istanbul Edition, Page 11]

10. Imam Al Ghazali has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Malik and Imam Shafi’i. [Ihya al-Uloom al-Deen , Vol 2, Page 7]


11. Imam Hajar al Asqalani has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Bukhari and Imam Shafi’i. [Muqaddima , Fat’h al-Bari , Page 18 and 21]

12. Imam Nawawi has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Muslim. [Muqaddima, Sharah Muslim , Page 11]

13. Shayh Abdul Haq Muhaddith al Dehalwi has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Shafi’i and Imam Bukhari. [Ashi’at-ul-Lama’at, Vol 1 , Page 9 and 16]

14. Shaykh Al Tibrizi has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Baghawi. [Muqadiima , Mishkat al Masabih]

15. Alla’ma Al-Khaffaji has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Imam Qadi Iyad. [Naseem ar-Riyadh, Page 5, Cairo Edition]

16. Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith al Dehalwi has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Sayyiduna Shaykh Abdul Qadir al-Jilani al Hasani al Hussaini at more than fifteen places. [Ashi’at-ul-Lama’at, Vol1 , Page 18 and Akhbar al Akhiyar Page 15,16, 18 21, 22, 23, 24 , 209, 210, 211, 212, 213 and 214]

17. Imam Mulla Ali al Qari has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Abdullah bin Mubarak, Layth bin Sa’ad, Imam Malik bin Anas, Dawud Tai’i, Ibrahim Bin Adham and Fudayl ibn Iyaad. [Mirqat, Vol 1 , Page 27]

18. Allama Al-Sa’avi al Maliki has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu for Shaykh Suleyman Jamal, Ahmed Dardeer, Salim Hafnawi, Shaykh Ameer, Imam Abul Hasan Sahykh Saeed Adawi , Allama Mohammed bin Badeeri Dimyati, Nuruddin Ali Shabralsi, Allam Halabi, Allama Ali Ajhori, Burhan Alqi, Shamshuddin Alqami , Imam Ziyaadi, Shaykh Ramli, Shaykhul Islam Zakariyya Anasari, Jalaluddin Muhalli and Imam Suyuti. [Tafsir al-Sawi , Vol 1 , Page 3]

19. Imam al Shatnufi in [Bahjat al-Asraar] has used Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu at many places for other than companions and in Bidaya , Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu has been used for Sahib al-Hidaya by his students at many places.

I hope my effort will be appreciated and my brothers and sisters in faith will surely remember me in their prayers for peace and prosperity, health and happiness and Allah’s SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala Mercy and Favour. May Almighty Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala, through the intercession of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam accept this humble effort; and may He SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala give us the Toufeeq and Hidayah to restore the true rights and respect towards our Ulama and Awliya as dictated by Islam. Aameen!!

Posted by: Seeker of the Sacred Knowledge | September 7, 2011

Death of Mufti of Halab Shaykh Ibrahim al-Salqini

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Inna lillahi wa-inna ilayhi raji`un

May Allah have mercy on him and grant him Jannat al-Firdaws

Condolences from Shaykh `Abd al-Fattah al-Bayanuni



– كلمة عزاء للدكتور محمد أبو الفتح البيانوني في وفاة سماحة الشيخ إبراهيم سلقيني –

الحمد لله رب العالمين ، وإنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون ، اللهم أجرنا في مصيبتنا ، وأبدلنا خيرا منها …

أيها الإخوة المسلمون :

أعزي نفسي وإخواني علماء حلب، وعلماء بلاد الشام خاصة، والعالم الإسلامي عامة ، بوفاة شيخنا العالم الرباني ، الشيخ الدكتور : إبراهيم محمد السلقيني – مفتي حلب – الذي وافته المنية ليلة الثلاثاء 8 شوال 1432 هـ الموافق 6 9 2011 م ,

سائلا الله عزوجل أن يتغمده برحمته، وأن يجعله في عليين ، مع الأنبياء والصديقين ، والشهداء والصالحين ، وأن يجزيه عنا وعن المسلمين خير الجزاء …

فلقد كان فقيدنا – رحمه الله تعالى – ولا سيما في الأوقات العصيبة الراهنة الطودا الشامخ ، والجبل الراسخ ، الذي لايخشى في الله لومة لائم …

والذي وسع بخلقه وحلمه الناس من حوله ،وصبر على أذى المخالفين والجاهلين …

عوضه الله الجنة ،وصحبة الأنبياء والمرسلين، وعوض المسلمين عنه خيرا بالعلماء العاملين، والدعاة الربانيين ، الذين تأمن الأمة بوجودهم ، وتسعد وتنجو بالرجوع إليهم ، والالتفاف حولهم …

فإن مثل العلماء في الأرض ، كمثل النجوم في السماء،يهتدى بها في ظلمات البر والبحر، فإذا طمست النجوم ، يوشك أن تضل الهداة .

ولاحول ولاقوة إلا بالله العلي العظيم ، وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد، وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم ، والحمد لله رب العالمين …

حلب .. فجر الثلاثاء 8 10 1432 هـ ، 6 9 2011 م .

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The funeral of an outspoken Sunni cleric who died under tight security in a hospital Tuesday interrupted the calm that has largely prevailed in the Syrian commercial center of Aleppo throughout the nation’s six-month uprising. Plainclothes pro-government security forces attacked mourners, and mourners and activists calling for an end to President Bashar Assad’s regime.

Videos posted on the Internet showed at least several hundred people joining the funeral procession, chanting “death but not indignity,” a slogan of the anti-government protests.

The paid, pro-government militiamen known as “shabiha” and the regular government security forces with them beat and detained mourners when the funeral march reached the cemetery, activists said.

Dr. Ibrahim Salkini, 77, the Sunni mufti of Aleppo and dean of theology at Damascus University, died earlier Tuesday after spending several days in the hospital. According to the Union of Aleppo Coordinators, the Aleppo branch of Syria’s activist network, the Local Coordination Committees, the mufti suffered a heart attack after security forces visited him following what some deemed a defiant Friday sermon by the cleric last week.

According to the Union of Aleppo Coordinators, the family of the sheikh was not allowed to visit him in the hospital and his room was under tight security. Suspicions that the death involved foul play spread quickly Tuesday.

“I believe that the government is involved in the death of our sheikh. He had always been so courageous in speaking against the regime and we all found his words so wise. Who else would have killed him?” asked Aniseh, a 45-year-old mother of five in Aleppo, and one of several people interviewed who raised the allegation.

The Aleppo mufti was known for being critical of the regime’s brutal crackdown on pro-democracy protesters. Salkini, along with other clergy in Aleppo, issued a statement last month blaming the Syrian authorities responsible for the bloodshed in the country since they were the “more powerful” of the two sides. (Link is in Arabic.) More than 2,200 people have died, according to the United Nations.

Salkini could stir more unrest in Aleppo, where the lives of residents has been largely untouched by current bloodshed. The regime in Damascus has counted on the middle- and upper-class residents of Damascus and Aleppo to be a counterweight to protesters in other restive cities participating in daily demonstrations against the government.

Tensions over the killing of the sheikh — a member of Syria’s Sunni majority — and the suspicions involving the shabiha, many of whom are members of Assad’s Alawite religious minority, underscored constant worries that the government crackdown could spark sectarian fighting. Many activists and defectors from the nation’s military accuse the government of trying to spur clashes between Syria’s religious groups to justify an even more brutal crackdown on the uprising.

— Roula Hajjar, Ellen Knickmeyer and a special correspondent in Beirut

Condolences from Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi


يتقدم الشيخ محمد أبو الهدى اليعقوبي إلى علماء سورية والعالم الإسلامي وأهل الفقيد بأصدق التعازي بوفاة مفتي حلب العلامة الدكتور إبراهيم السلقيني رحمه الله – وهو رجل من بيت علم وصلاح، جمع بين الفقه والورع، وكان قدوة حسنة في أدبه وأخلاقه، وخدم العلم وأهله عمره كله، كانت بين والده ووالدي عليهما الرحمة محبة ومودة اتصلت بيننا من بعد. ونحسبه من العلماء الربانيين. رحمه ووهب أهله وطلابه الصبر والسلوان.
Shaykh Habib Ali Al Jifri:
 نعي مفتي حلب سماحة الشيخ إبراهيم محمد السلقيني

الثلاثاء ٠٦ سبتمبر ٢٠١١ – ٠٨ شوال ١٤٣٢

بمشاعر الأسى والحزن ننعى شيخنا العالِم الرباني مفتي حلب سماحة الشيخ إبراهيم محمد السلقيني، الذي وافته المنيّة ليلة الثلاثاء 8 شوال 1432، الموافق 6/9/2011، في حلب الشهباء، فانطفأ برحيله سراج من نور العلم والتقوى والصلاح؛ سائلين الله تعالى أن يتغمّده بواسع رحمته وعظيم غفرانه وسعة فضله وإنعامه، ويُنْزلَه في منازل أهل ودّه وقربه في أعلى عليين من جنانه، وأن يُلهم أهله وأولاده وذويه ومحبيه الصبر والسلوان وأن يبارك في ذريته، ويعوض المسلمين عنه بالعلماء العاملين والدعاة الربانيين…
وإنّا لله وإنّا إليه راجعون.

Videos :

Footage Of  The shaykh …

Shaykh Ibrahim With The Ulama Of Halab :

Shaykh Ibrahim In Damascus :

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